What is surprising about the transnational implementation of TRIPS is that most countries have not actually used the potential flexibilities contained in the agreement. For example, Carolyn Deere points out that by the end of 2007, fewer than 15 governments had actually granted a compulsory licence, while the majority of signatories in member developing countries had options for the use of a third-party patented invention for research, science or experimentation at the end of 2007.  Some TRIPS “Plus” (FTA) free trade agreements concluded by the United States in the years since TRIPS include: United States-Jordan 2001; United States-Chile, 2003; United States-Singapore 2003; U.S.-Southern Africa Customs Union; The free trade agreement between the United States and Central America; United States-Morocco and United States-Australia. Such agreements reduce or remove the flexibilities contained in trips, further limiting exceptions to patentability. Thus, the free trade agreement between the United States and Singapore severely limits the potential for compulsory licensing of patented products. It is fairly open under Article 30 of ACCORD TRIPS, but under the agreement between the United States and Singapore, Singapore can only issue a compulsory licence under strict and limited specifications: to remedy anti-competitive acts, for non-commercial public purposes or in national emergencies. Some free trade agreements have required a degree of exclusivity of patent protection data, so that generic drug manufacturers can, at any time, bring patented products to market while they are still patented, even if a compulsory licence has been granted.  Copyright is a key area in which TRIPS “Plus” measures have been taken, usually under pressure from the developed world. Out of 106 developing countries studied, more than 65 offer a copyright term above the minimum required under TRIPS. B for example Mexico and Colombia, which provide a copyright clause for the life of the author plus eighty years, thirty years longer than the TRIPS standard.  A reservation contract may be used when purchasing new homes if a buyer reserves the right to purchase a property for a specified period of time. During this period (known as the “booking period”), the seller agrees not to sell to another party. As part of the agreement, the buyer pays a down payment (known as a “booking fee”).